By Stuart Cole
* totally up-to-date 3rd version of a longtime delivery textbook
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Extra info for Applied Transport Economics: Policy, Management & Decision Making
6 Number of London suburban train units in operation up line to King’s Cross/Moorgate (Monday–Friday) Source: Network Rail working timetable 2000 start of the business day that high landing charges are not a major factor affecting demand. More important particularly for the large international airlines in recent years (since 2000) have been low cost airlines and terrorist threats. Smaller aircraft used on for example short haul regional services operating through major international airports may pay more per passenger than users of larger aircraft.
The desire for new housing in less crowded conditions is growing and increased car ownership in such estates cannot be influenced by the operator. Government intervention in the market place has then to be evaluated using forecasting techniques and socioeconomic cost benefit techniques described later (see Chapter 8, 9 and 10). The changes in population may also be regional: from rural into urban areas and from the north and west of Britain into the more prosperous south. The decline in population means reduced demand for services in those areas and thus reduced supply unless government subsidy is forthcoming.
74. 55 over much longer journeys. European air fares The real cost of air travel in relation to average weekly wages has fallen considerably from the 1970 level and since 1980 has been consistent, where one half of a week’s wages represents a single discount price fare from London to New York. Similar patterns are found in Germany, the Netherlands and France. On particular routes the arrival of new airlines (eg Flybe, easyJet and Ryanair) and lower cost operations of established airlines (eg Virgin Express, Go (BA, later bought by management, then easyJet) and Transavia (KLM)) have led to lower fares and an own price elasticity effect encouraging new passengers and/or more trips.