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By Jessica Brown

Modern philosophy of brain is ruled via anti- individualism, which holds subject's recommendations are decided not just by way of what's inside of her head but in addition via elements of her surroundings. regardless of its dominance, anti-individualism is topic to a frightening array of epistemological objections: that it really is incompatible with the privileged entry each one topic has to her innovations, that it undermines rationality, and, absurdly, that it presents a brand new path to a priori wisdom of the realm. during this rigorous and persuasive examine, Jessica Brown defends anti- individualism from those epistemological objections. The dialogue has very important effects for key epistemological concerns similar to skepticism, closure, transmission, and the character of information and warrant. in line with Brown's research, one major cause of pondering that anti-individualism is incompatible with privileged entry is that it undermines a subject's introspective skill to tell apart forms of recommendations. So clinically determined, the traditional concentrate on a subject's reliability approximately her options offers no enough answer. Brown defuses the objection via attract the epistemological inspiration of a correct replacement. additional, she argues that, given a formal knowing of rationality, anti- individualism is suitable with the idea that we're rational matters. despite the fact that, the dialogue of rationality presents a brand new argument that anti-individualism is in stress with Fregean experience. eventually, Brown indicates that anti-individualism doesn't create a brand new path to a priori wisdom of the realm. whereas rejecting options that limit the transmission of warrant, she argues that anti-individualists should still deny that we've got the kind of wisdom that might be required to exploit a priori wisdom of idea content material to realize a priori wisdom of the realm.

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A compatibilist might try to respond to the discrimination argument by pointing out that, on pain of skepticism, knowledge that p cannot require that one can distinguish the actual situation in which p from every possible alternative situation in which p is false. Consider a subject who is looking at a rose and having a perceptual experience as of seeing a rose. She could have a subjectively indistinguishable experience had she just become a brain in a vat (BIV) being stimulated to make it seem as if she is seeing a rose.

First, she might argue on other grounds that the slow switch subject can distinguish a priori between the actual situation Knowledge and Discrimination 45 and the relevant twin situation. Second, she might accept with the incompatibilist that the slow switch subject cannot distinguish a priori the actual from the twin situation, but argue that such a discriminative ability is not required for knowledge of thought. I consider these options below. 3 Discrimination and Reliability We may start our investigation of the relation between discriminative abilities and reliability by looking at the work of Goldman.

In the last part, I discuss whether antiindividualism provides a novel and a priori route to knowledge of the external world. Throughout the book, I include discussion of two versions of anti-individualism that often receive little attention in the literature on these topics: the illusion version of anti-individualism and Fregean antiindividualism. According to anti-individualism, a subject’s thought contents are individuated partly by a variety of features of her environment, such as the fundamental nature of natural kinds in her environment, the particular objects in her environment, and the linguistic practices of her community.

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