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By Rowland S. Benson and W. A. Woods (Auth.)

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Before we examine the necessary relations to evaluate the criteria, a description of the Joule-Thomson experiment will be given. 2 shows a schematic arrangement of the apparatus. Gas under pressure is forced through a porous plug. A constant high pressure is maintained on one side of the plug and a constant low pressure on the other. The apparatus is thermally insulated from the surroundings. Within the plug an irreversible non-equilibrium process is taking place and it is not possible to evaluate the properties of the gas.

14) = o. av2 The liquid and vapour phases cannot be distinguished at this temperature and pressure. Both the liquid and the vapour have the same density and a change in phase from liquid to vapour takes place without the addition of latent heat. The conditions at C are called the critical conditions for a substance or the critical point. The pressure, temperature and volume are called the critical pressure p , critical temperature T and the critical volume v c . Since all pure substances exhibit this phenomenon, as well as the general form of p-v-T relations shown in Fig.

Possible, even if it were desirable, relationships which can be developed The interested reader is referred to the texts given in the references. of motion, gravity, It is therefore not to examine all the in the space available. Bridgmant or to any of The properties we are concerned with are of two types, called the intensive and the extensive properties. The intensive properties are properties whose magnitude is independent of the mass of a system, such as pressure p, temperature T, density p (later in the fourth chapter we will introduce the chemical potential).

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