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Extra info for Adolescent Problems - Guide for Teachers, Parents, Counsellors

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G. a desire to inflict pain and injury by expressing its extreme opposite, pacifism. rationalisation We explain away our selfish, aggressive behaviour as reasonable assertion of our rights. repression Our aggressive impulses are kept unconscious. sublimation Our aggressive impulses are directed into cultural outlets. g. g. with parents and siblings, are transferred to other people in the present. It can be seen also as representing infantile desires for achieving gratification through current relationships.

The parent or teacher must avoid inadvertently rewarding or reinforcing inappropriate behaviour. If the teacher or parent feels that punishment is appropriate in the circumstances then to be effective it should meet the following criteria: ● It should not be such that it could be interpreted as physical or emotional abuse. ● It should punish the specific behaviour. ● It should occur as soon as possible after the misbehaviour. ● It should be proportionate to the misbehaviour. ● It should be consistently applied.

Self-regulation which is a person’s ability to control his or her own behaviour, expectancies or anticipated consequences, there being two types of expectancies – outcome expectations, that a particular behaviour will produce a certain result, and efficacy expectations, that one will be able to perform that behaviour. self-reinforcement where people reward themselves for achieving their goals. e. g. parents and peers. Negative expectations and feelings of inefficacy can also play a part in helping to produce emotional and behavioural problems.

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