By W. Geller, H. Klapper, M. Schultze (auth.), Prof. Dr. Walter Geller, Prof. Dr. Helmut Klapper, Prof. Dr. Wim Salomons (eds.)
Acidification is a common challenge in any respect mining websites during which oxygenated water is available in touch with sulfide minerals or different decreased sulfur compounds. a global Workshop was once held in September 1995 on the division for Inland Water learn of the UFZ-Centre for Environmental examine in Magdeburg at the limnology of lakes created through open-cast lignite mining, emphasizing the customarily saw geogenic acidification after oxidation of pyrite. subject matters of curiosity have been case reports at the limnology of acid lakes, e.g. bacteriologically better strategies on the topic of heavy steel mobilization and acid iteration, the ecology of sulfur-acidic lakes, and at the inorganic procedures of acidification. additionally, strategies for the prevention and the abatement of acidification have been addressed together with the explanations of acidification, and the choices for decreasing the output of acidified groundwater from overburden dumps, for acid regulate in the course of the flooding of open-cast mines, and capability measures for triggered in situ organic neutralization. This quantity has 25 chapters together with a bankruptcy with result of crew discussions in regards to the subject matters pointed out above and extra difficulties that have been pointed out in the course of the assembly. The monograph offers a baseline of the nation of technology at the around the world challenge of geogenic adidification of lakes following human mining actions, and the way to deal with this environmental problem.
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Extra resources for Acidic Mining Lakes: Acid Mine Drainage, Limnology and Reclamation
Lake water was analysed in the following way: pH by in-situ measurement (WTW-electrode); Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn by flame atomic spectrometry; NHt by photospectroscopy; SO~-, CI-, and NO; by ion chromatography; HCO; by titrimetry; AI, Cd, Cr and Pb by flame atomic spectrometry and by atomic absorption spectrometry; As by atomic absorption spectrometry (hydride system or graphite furnace) and Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. For sediment samples, analyses were done as follows: pH by CaCI;:- method; dry weight and loss on ignition gravimetrically at 105 and 550 DC, respectively; total organic carbon by a C-analyser after release of inorganic carbon with HCI; total phosphorus by atomic emission spectrometry after digestion with aqua regia; total nitrogen by spectrophotometry after digestion according to the Kjeldal method; and the elements AI, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectrometry after digestion with aqua regia (cold digestion was performed for mercury).
In general, the age of lignite formation decreases from south-west (Eocene) to north-east (Miocene). Further details are given in Eissmann (1994). In the future, mining in the central German district will be restricted to only three open pits: United Schleenhain, Profen, and Amsdorf. Another center of coal mining in eastern Germany is the Lusatian lignite mining district. This vast area contains 13 billion tons of lignite (proven reserves), or one-quarter of the total German reserves. The Lusatian lignite mining district comprises two lithologically different areas: the economically more important area of Lower Lusatia, situated mainly in Branden- 2 Regional Geology of the Lignite Mining Districts in Eastern 19 burg, and the area of Upper Lusatia in Saxony.
6 d). The water content is a good measure to discriminate between fresh sediment of high porosity and older, more compacted material. In Lake Au water content does not change significantly in the upper sediment layer. 5 Discussion There is little data available from the time when flooding started, but as geological background and mining procedure were the same for all lakes, we assume that all lakes started from the same chemical status. Therefore the results suggest that the progress of the neutralization process depends on the age of a lake.